November is Native American Heritage Month, and we’d like to take some time to acknowledge the woodland tribes that once lived where our bustling city sits today.
Before the 1700s, Northern Illinois was primarily populated by the Illinois and Miami tribes. As Europeans pushed further inland, many tribes were forced to relocate. What we now refer to as Northern Illinois became home to a variety of tribes, including the Winnebago (Ho-Chunk), Sauk, Shawnee, Potawatomi, Fox, Kickapoo, and Dakota Sioux.
While each tribe had its own subset of languages, religion, and customs, we know that the tribes of this region flourished due to the climate, natural resources, and land in which they were located. Northern Illinois provided them with plenty of opportunity for both farming and hunting, due to the prairies and woodland areas. These areas also provided them with various plants, trees, and animals which they used for clothing, food, shelter, medicine, and ceremonies. Northern Illinois is also host to numerous rivers, creeks, and lakes – opening the opportunity for fresh water, fishing, and transportation.
Western Expansion forced these tribes to relocate to federal reservations; however, traces of their presence can still be found in the names of counties, towns, and sports teams. There are also many conical and effigy mounds remaining throughout Illinois, including places like Cahokia, Galena, and Rockford.
On your next trip to Tinker Swiss Cottage, you’ll be able to visit a conical burial mound, which has remained virtually undisturbed since approximately 1100 AD (other than one archeological core sample test). After your visit, be sure to stop by Beattie Park near the Rock River to visit three effigy mounds dating from the 7th to the 12th centuries.